Know Your Parts
What Females Have
External Female Anatomy
The vulva is all of a woman’s external sex organs. Everything that someone can see on the outside. It includes the outer labia, inner labia, clitoris, urethra and the opening to the vagina.
The skin that is located on the vulva that is usually covered by pubic hair during and after puberty.
The skin that covers the opening to the vagina and the urethra. Typically visible when the outer labia are apart, however for some females the inner labia can be seen when the outer labia is not apart.
A organ located at the top of the vulva, where the inner labia (lips) meet. It is a spongy tissue that fills with blood during sexual excitement, becoming firmer. It has highly sensitive nerve endings. It is also known as the clit, and when rubbed, a person with female anatomy will get aroused and can orgasm.
Opening of the Urethra
The Urethra is the tube that empties the bladder and carries urine out of the body. It is located below the Clitoris.
Opening of the Vagina
The vaginal opening is located below the opening of the urethra. The vaginal opening is where sexual intercourse occurs. The opening is also where tampons are inserted and where menstrual blood comes out. The vagina is also referred to as the birth canal as this is where, during a natural birth, a baby comes out.
Opening of the Anus
The Anus is not part of the vulva, but it is located near it. Both males and females have an anus. This is the opening from the rectum (the lowest end of the intestine before the anus) from which waste (feces) leaves the body. The anus is made up of thin tissue that can easily tear. For individuals who engage in anal sex (any type of sexual stimulation or penetration of the anus), this is where it would occur.
Internal Female Reproductive Anatomy
The uterus is a pear-shaped, muscular reproductive organ about the size of a woman’s fist. It is where a pregnancy develops and where the female menstruation cycle begins (bleeding). When a woman is pregnant, the uterus stretches to allow room for a fetus to develop. The uterus is sometimes referred to as the womb.
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus. It has an opening that connects the uterus to the vagina. The opening allows menstrual blood to leave the uterus and sperm to enter. The opening also stretches (dilates) during birth.
These are two small narrow tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. Sperm travels into the Fallopian Tubes to fertilize the egg.
These are oval-shaped glands located on each side of the uterus. The two ovaries produce hormones and eggs. Females are born with all their eggs that are stored in the ovaries. During puberty, the ovaries start to release eggs and continue until menopause (this is when the females stops releasing eggs; this usually occurs between the ages 45 and 55). It is typical that one ovary releases an egg each month. However when a female begins her menstrual cycle, it can be irregular. Females can sometimes release more than one egg, release eggs a different times of the month, or they may skip months altogether. It sometimes can take years for females to begin a regular, predictable cycle.
The vagina is a passageway that joins the cervix, or the lower part of the uterus, with the outside body. The vagina is a passageway into the body for sperm and is used for sexual stimulation which is referred to as penetration when anything is inserted. The vagina also acts as a passageway out of the body for vaginal fluids, menstrual bloods, and a fetus during childbirth.
The g-spot, or Grafenburg Spot, is a small area of tissue inside the vagina (sometimes about the size of a quarter), an inch or two inches inside the vagina. The skin of this spot feels a little different than the rest of the vagina and has soft ridges on it. For some , this spot can be sensitive when touched, and has been linked to orgasms. Not every woman can locate the g-spot in their body.
Both males and females have a a urethra. It is a tube that empties the bladder and carries urine out of the body. In females it is located above the opening of the vagina and just below the clitoris.
Both females and males have a rectum. The rectum is the lowest end of the intestine before the anus, where solid waste or feces leaves the body.
How do females get pregnant?
Females can get pregnant through sexual intercourse. The most common type of sex where pregnancy can happen is through vaginal sex (penis in vagina). However, as long as semen or cum (fluid containing sperm) is present in or around the vaginal area, sperm can enter in through the vaginal opening and travel to meet up with an egg. This is why it is very important to always use protection such as a barrier method contraceptive like a condom. If concerned about an unplanned pregnancy it is always good to also use some form of hormonal birth control (pill, patch, IUD, implant, shot, ring) in addition to a barrier method. Using a barrier method and a hormonal method would be the safest way for heterosexual individuals (males and females who have sex with each other) to engage in sexual activities to be protected from an unplanned pregnancy and/or a Sexually Transmitted Infection/Disease (STI/STD). It is not 100% effective, but it is the safest way to engage in sexual activities. If individuals are only concerned about Sexually Transmitted Infections, then a barrier method would be enough.
The best way, and the 100% way to avoid an unplanned pregnancy would be to practice abstinence. Abstinence is when an individual does not engage in any type of sexual activity at all. This includes (anal sex, oral sex, and vaginal sex) .
What is a period and why do females get them?
Beginning during puberty, females’ bodies get themselves ready every month for a possible pregnancy. This is called the “menstrual cycle”. The menstrual cycle is the time from the first day of one period to the first day of her next period. A female’s period usually lasts anywhere from 2 to 7 days, but her menstrual cycle can last for 21 to 45 days. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days.
During this time, the lining of her uterus thickens with blood and tissue to prepare for a pregnancy. About halfway through her menstrual cycle, one of her ovaries releases an egg, also called ovulation. The egg then travels through one of her two fallopian tubes toward the uterus. If the egg does not join with sperm she will not get pregnant. Therefore, she does not need this extra lining of the uterus. The lining of the uterus breaks down and comes out of her body through her vagina. This is called her period, or menstruation.
It is normal for teens’ menstrual cycles to vary from month to month. Usually after a couple of years of getting periods, girls’ menstrual cycles will get more regular, or have a similar amount of days between periods every month. However, it may take 6 years or more after periods start for menstrual cycles to get regular.
One thing to keep in mind is that sperm can live in a females’ uterus and Fallopian Tubes for up to a week after vaginal sex. Therefore, if a male and a female have vaginal sex on a Monday and she releases an egg on a Friday, she can still get pregnant. And given the fact that teens periods are often not regular, she can still get pregnant if she has sex on her period or right after her period. If a female is having vaginal sex, it is important to use birth control to prevent getting pregnant. If she forgets to use birth control, or is on birth control but doesn’t use it correctly, she can get emergency contraception, or emergency birth control, to prevent getting pregnant.
Emergency contraception, sometimes called the morning after pill or Plan B, can be taken up to five days after sex to prevent a pregnancy. Emergency contraception works best in the first 24 hours so it’s important to get it as soon as possible. It can be taken up to three to five days after sex, but it works best in the first 24 hours so it’s important to take it as soon as possible.
Internal Male Anatomy
External Male Anatomy
The penis is a male’s reproductive and sex organ. The penis is made up of two parts: the shaft and the glans (also known as the head). The penis becomes erect (or hard) when sexually excited; however, it can also happen for a number of other reasons, even when a male is not sexually aroused. At sexual climax, males ejaculate a thick fluid called semen (cum) through the small opening at the tip of the penis, the urethral opening. The semen carries the sperm cells. When a guy urinates, or pees, the urine leaves the penis through the same urethral opening.
Some males have circumcised (cut) penises and some guys have uncircumcised (uncut) penises. Males with circumcised penises had the foreskin surgically removed from the head (tip) of the penis, while uncircumcised penises still have a foreskin that covers the head of the penis. When using a condom, males with uncircumcised penises need to pull the foreskin down before using the condom.
Everyone’s penis is a different size and is unique.
Opening of the Urethra
A opening of the urethra is located on the tip or head of the penis. This is where urine, per-ejaculate fluid, and semen leave the body.
The scrotum is a pouch of skin that holds and protects the testicles. They keep the temperature just right for the testicles and sperm by bringing the testicles closer to the body when it is too cold, or relaxing when it’s too hot so that the testicles don’t overheat.
Opening of the Anus
Both males and females have an anus. The anus is where solid waste or feces are excreted from the body. Sexual stimulation and penetration of the anus is a sexual practice enjoyed by both men and women. Due to the thin tissue in this area, some tearing may occur. To help prevent the risk of tearing non-oil based lubrication should be used.
Internal Male Anatomy
Testicles (the balls) are located below the penis. They produce sperm, or the male sex cells. They also produce testosterone, the male hormone that drives puberty.
The urethra is a tube that empties the bladder and carries urine, pre-ejacualate, and semen to the urethral opening.
The prostate gland produces a fluid that helps sperm move through the male’s reproductive tubes and provides energy for the sperm. It is about the size of a walnut. The prostate is sensitive to pressure and touch.
The epididymis is where sperm mature after being made in the testicles and where the sperm is stored before ejaculation. It is located on the top and behind each testicle.
The vas deferens is a long narrow tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the seminal vesicles during ejaculation. There are two of them, one connected to each epididymis.
Both males and females have a rectum. The rectum is the lowest end of the intestine before the anus, where solid waste or feces is stored and leaves the body.
Some people are born with external and internal sex organs that are not easily distinguishable as female or male. This is called intersex.
Transgender and Transexual
These are terms that are used to define anyone who may express their gender as a sex they were not necessarily assigned at birth. This can include cross dressers, drag artists, or people who just express themselves in what is considered “non-traditional” for their birth sex.
Some individuals psychologically identify as one gender/sex other than the one they were assigned at birth. These individuals sometimes feel as though they were born into the “wrong” body. These people will sometimes undergo surgeries, and begin taking hormones in addition to changing the way they dress or present themselves to the world.